Protocol No: ECCT/22/06/02 Date of Protocol: 09-03-2022

Study Title:
A Phase 2/3, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Mitapivat in Subjects With Sickle Cell Disease.

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Study Objectives:
Main objective:
Phase 2:
  1. To determine the recommended Phase 3 dose of mitapivat by evaluating the effect of 2 dose levels of mitapivat versus placebo on:
• Anemia in subjects with sickle cell disease (SCD)
• Safety
Phase 3:
  1. To determine the effect of mitapivat versus placebo on:
• Anemia in subjects with sickle cell disease (SCD)
• Sickle cell pain crises (SCPCs) in subjects with SCD
 
Secondary objectives:
Phase 2:
1. To evaluate the effect of 2 doses of mitapivat versus placebo on:
  • Anemia
  • Markers of hemolysis and erythropoiesis
  • Patient-reported fatigue
  • Sickle cell pain crises (SCPCs)
2. To evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of mitapivat.
Phase 3:
  1. To evaluate the effect of mitapivat versus placebo on:
  • Anemia in subjects with SCD
  • Markers of hemolysis
  • Markers of erythropoiesis
  • Patient-reported fatigue
  • Additional clinical efficacy measures related to SCPC
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Laymans Summary:
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder where the red blood cells, which carry oxygen around the body, develop abnormally and become rigid and shaped like a crescent (sickle shape). Sickle cell disease affects millions of people worldwide and is very common in certain areas of Africa. This study will look at a possible drug for treatment of Sickle cell disease called Mitapivat. Results from earlier studies with mitapivat shows that it may reduce the change of shape in red blood cells which makes them look like a sickle and causes the red blood cells to be destroyed resulting in a person with sickle cell disease getting low blood level (anemia). Therefore, in this study mitapivat is a drug candidate for the treatment of adult patients with sickle cell disease with the potential to provide clinical benefit by both improvement of anemia and reduction in sickle cell pain crisis.
 
This study has both a Phase 2 and a Phase 3. The main aim of the Phase 2 portion of the study is to define how mitapivat works in the short term, how safe it is and the right dose which will be selected for the Phase 3 portion of the study. The aim of the Phase 3 portion of the study is to assess the how well the selected dose of mitapivat works for treatment and how safe it when used in patients with sickle cell disease. This portion of the study is intended to show the extent to which mitapivat treatment reduces painful crisis because of blocked blood vessels and reduces anemia in sickle cell disease.
In this Phase2/3 study, both the participant and most study staff including the doctors don’t know which treatment has been given to the participant (referred to as double-blind). One group of study participants called the treatment group will receive the mitapivat and another group called the control group will receive a study treatment with no active ingredient called a placebo.
 
The study is being done in different countries around the world, in multiple study centers in participants with SCD. The Phase 2 portion dose-finding study will assess 2 dose levels of mitapivat (50 mg twice a day and 100 mg twice a day) versus placebo to select the dose of mitapivat to be evaluated in the Phase 3 portion. The Phase 3 portion is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluating how effective and safe mitapivat is at the selected Phase 3 dose versus placebo. Participants who complete the Double-blind Period in the Phase 2/3 portion will have the option to receive mitapivat in the non-blinded (Open label) Extension Period. Approximately 267 participants (69 in Phase 2 and 198 in Phase 3) are planned to be enrolled in this study worldwide.  In Kenya  there are  7 sites ,3 sites in Nairobi,1 in  western  and  3 in Nyanza. Enrollment is compentative world wide.
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Abstract of Study:

Background:

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a serious and life-threatening inherited hemoglobin (Hb) disorder caused by a single amino acid substitution in the beta (β)-globin gene (β s c.20A>T; rs334). Sickle cell disease affects millions of people worldwide. The homozygous form (HbSS) occurs in most cases and represents approximately 88% to 96% in certain areas of Africa. Preliminary data indicate that mitapivat may reduce Hemoglobin S polymerization, sickling, and hemolysis. Therefore, in this study mitapivat is a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of adult patients with SCD with the potential to provide clinical benefit by both improvement of anemia and reduction in sickle cell pain crises (SCPCs).

The only current curative treatment approach for some patients with SCD is bone marrow transplant. However, a lack of histocompatible donors, concerns about transplant-related morbidity and mortality, and pre-existing conditions (organ dysfunction or alloimmunization) often preclude patients from pursuing this treatment option. For decades, hydroxyurea was the only disease-modifying therapy available for patients with SCD. Hydroxyurea is indicated to reduce the frequency of painful crises; however, its use is limited by its safety profile, which includes myelosuppression (neutropenia and thrombocytopenia) and gastrointestinal toxicity. Reduced fertility has been reported as a long-term adverse effect.

Justification/Rationale:

The use of curative options for SCD is currently limited to a small subgroup of patients who are deemed fit for bone marrow transplantation and have available donors. The treatment options for SCD are not universally effective or globally available, tend to address only a single component of the disease, or are limited by their safety profile. Therefore, a significant unmet medical need exists for safe and effective therapies for the treatment of SCD that result in both an improvement in anemia and reduction in sickle cell–related crises.

Mitapivat is a small molecule, oral activator of wild-type (WT) and mutant forms of the RBC-specific form of pyruvate kinase (PKR). Activation of PKR has potential application in the treatment of hemolytic anemias, including SCD, which are characterized by increased metabolic demands or by defects in glycolysis that contribute to the shortened life span of the RBC. Decreases in PKR function, exemplified in patients with pyruvate kinase deficiency, leads to dysfunctional RBCs that are characterized by defective glycolysis, including a build-up of 2,3-DPG and PEP with decreased levels of ATP. However, there is evidence that the activation of the normal (WT) PKR enzyme can play a role in other hemolytic anemias such as SCD.

Main Objectives:

Phase 2:
  1. To determine the recommended Phase 3 dose of mitapivat by evaluating the effect of 2 dose levels of mitapivat versus placebo on:
• Anemia in subjects with sickle cell disease (SCD)
• Safety
Phase 3:
  1. To determine the effect of mitapivat versus placebo on:
• Anemia in subjects with sickle cell disease (SCD)
• Sickle cell pain crises (SCPCs) in subjects with SCD
 
Secondary objectives:
Phase 2:
  1. To evaluate the effect of 2 doses of mitapivat versus placebo on:
  • Anemia
  • Markers of hemolysis and erythropoiesis
  • Patient-reported fatigue
  • Sickle cell pain crises (SCPCs)

2. ‚ÄčTo evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of mitapivat. 

Phase 3:
  1. To evaluate the effect of mitapivat versus placebo on:
• Anemia in subjects with SCD
• Markers of hemolysis
• Markers of erythropoiesis
• Patient-reported fatigue
• Additional clinical efficacy measures related to SCPC

Methods:

Overall Study design

This is a Phase 2/3, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, global, multicenter study evaluating the efficacy and safety of mitapivat versus placebo in subjects with SCD using an operationally seamless design. The Phase 2 portion is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study evaluating 2 dose levels of mitapivat (50 mg BID and 100 mg BID) versus placebo to select the dose of mitapivat to be evaluated in the Phase 3 portion. The Phase 3 portion is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluating the efficacy and safety of mitapivat at the selected Phase 3 dose versus placebo.

Subjects who complete the Double-blind Period in eitherthe Phase 2 or Phase 3 portion will have the option to receive mitapivat in the Open-label Extension Period. A total of 267 subjects (69 in Phase 2 and 198 in Phase 3) will be randomized in this study. The initiation of the Phase 3 portion will be based on prespecified go/no-go criteria and dose selection criteria. Subjects who participate in the Phase 2 portion of the study are not eligible to participate in the Phase 3 portion of the study.

Study outcomes:

The primary outcome, or endpoint, for the phase 2 study is hemoglobin (Hb) response, defined as a ≥1.0 g/dL increase in average Hb concentration from Week 10 through Week 12 compared with baseline and safety defined as adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs). The primary outcome for the phase 3 study is Hemoglobin (Hb) response, defined as a ≥1.0 g/dL increase in average Hb concentration from Week 24 through Week 52 compared with baseline and annualized rate of sickle cell pain crises (SCPCs) in subjects with SCD.

Study duration:

The duration of participation of a subject in the Phase 2 portion is up to 4.5 years (236 weeks). The duration of participation of a subject in the Phase 3 portion is up to 5.3 years (276 weeks). The end of the study is defined as the time at which all subjects complete all study visits, are lost to follow-up, have withdrawn consent for further participation in the study, or when the Sponsor terminates the study.

 

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